Fabric quality is very important factor to produce quality garments, because most of the garment defects are caused by the fabric. On the other hand fabric is the main raw materials of a garment and about 60-70% cost of a garment is the fabric cost. Quality control personnel must have knowledge about fabric defect, so that they can evaluate the fabric quality in garments industry.
According to visibility, there are three categories of fabric defects which are mentioned below and those areas must be checked to assure the fabric quality.
- Construction defects
- Latent defects
- Patent defects etc.
Any deficiency in construction of the fabric such as:
Uneven Density: Sometime the fabric weaving or knitting masters may not be so aware of the fabric density. As a result after completing the weaving/ knitting there are uneven places found on a same roll of fabric.
Wrong Yarn Count: It is often found in the mills that they are not maintaining the proper count yarn. As a result the construction of the fabric becomes different from the buyer requirement. This variation is called the yarn count fabric defect.
Wales/inch & Course/inch: Sometimes it also occurs that, wales/inch & course/inch calculation is not accurate. As a result it’s become much difficult to maintain the GSM of the fabric.
These are hidden defects in the fabric and it is not found visually. These defects can be identified by testing process.
Color fastness: Color fastness is a term used in dyeing of textile materials means resistance of color to bleed or run from the fabric. Fabric should be tested for colorfastness.
Shrinkage: Shrinkage is the process in which a fabric becomes smaller than its original size, usually through the process of laundry.
These defects can be observed in visual examination and can be quantified by using grading system. Sometimes these types of defect are caused directly rejection of the fabric.
Slub: Slub is a bunch of yarn having less twist or no twist and has a wider diameter compared to normal twisted yarn.
Hole Mark: Holes are the results of yarn breakage. If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density then hole mark is seen in the fabric.
Needle Mark: When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes alone the fabrics, or if a needle or needle hook slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics.
Sinker Mark: When sinker corrodes due to abrasion then sometimes cannot hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes or if sinker head bend then sinker mark comes.
Oil stain: When oil licks through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line.
Rust stain: If any rust on the machine parts comes in touch of the fabric, then rust spot may be seen. Grease stain: Improper or excess greasing, this fault may be found in the fabric.
Pin hole: Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric.
Drop Stitches: Due to defective needle or if yarn is not properly fed during loop formation, insufficient yarn tension, or due to badly set yarn feeder, this problem may be seen in the fabric.
Barre/Patta: A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) stripe(s). This fault comes from yarn fault. If different types of fiber contains in yarn, different luster or during spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed, then this problem may arise.
Fly: In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that is created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction, This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production.
Yarn contamination: If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing or if count mixing occurs.
Broken ends: If a warp yarn is absent in the fabric for a very short or long distance, and then the defect is called broken ends.
Broken picks: If a weft yarn is absent in the fabric for a very short of width, and then the defect is called broken picks.
Missing Ends: The fabric is characterized by a gap, parallel to the warp
Missing Picks: A narrow streak running parallel with weft threads caused due to absence of weft yarn.
Floats: It is a kind of defect where a warp or weft yarn floats over the fabric surface for a few centimetre lengths due to missing of interlacement of two series of yarns.
Weft curling: The weft curling is caused by inserting highly twisted weft yarn too freely, causes twisted of weft yarn and appear on the surface of fabric.
Irregular picking density: If the pick density that is picks per inch varies due to mechanical fault then thick or thin place may be formed in the fabric.
Hairy fabric: The fibers in the yarn have been roughened in the fabric.