Author Archives: Himel990

Garments Measurement Technique

Measurement is the technique which is used to give a proper shape or perfect outlook of any kind of product. Every product in the world needs a perfect measurement to have a nice shape. In RMG sector, the word “measurement” refers us that, the length and width of different parts of different types of garment items. Every kind of garment needs specific measurement for the good aesthetics purpose or good outlooks. Such as; front and back length-width, sleeve, collar, cuff, pocket length and width etc.

Importance of Measurement: Without having the accurate and perfect measurement it’s quite impossible to make a complete garments. If it is made, it will not be usable.

Measurement helps to obtain some importance criteria:

  • Measurement gives perfect shape
  • Helps to maintain size
  • Maintain balance in every individual parts.

Measurement Chart: Measurement chart is a sheet which contains all the sizes of a particular garments items individual parts description like sleeve, placket, collar, hem, body front part & back part length & width, tolerance limit etc. As well as it also contains the PO number, style number and the other information regarding the order. Measurement chart is given by the buyer’s end and the bulk production is done following measurement chart.

Check Points for QC: Whenever the QC departments are checking the garments measurement they need to have clear and transparent concept regarding the measurement issues like:

  • Proper knowledge about the particular positions of the garments parts.
  • Clear concept about measuring tape.
  • Clear concept about measurement chart.
  • Clear concept about “how to measure guide”

Measuring Points of a T-shirt

  •  ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/ Shoulder Seam
  • Across Shoulder/Shoulder to Shoulder
  • Sleeve Length/ Sleeve Over Arm
  • Armhole Straight/Curved 8. Bicep
  • Sleeve Opening/½ Bottom Sleeve
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Back Neck Width
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Full Length/Length from HPS/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Polo shirt

  •  ½ Chest
  • Full Length/Length from HPS/Front Length/Body Length
  • Across Shoulder/Shoulder to Shoulder
  • Sleeve Length/ Sleeve Over Arm
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • Sleeve Opening
  • Sleeve Length/Sleeve Over Arm
  • Armhole Straight
  • Cuff Height
  • Placket Height
  • Placket Width

Measuring Points of a Tank Top

  •  ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/ Shoulder Seam
  • Armhole Straight/Curved
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Back Neck Width
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Full Length/Length from HPS/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Cami Vest

  • ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • Armhole Curved
  • Total Strap Length
  • Front/Back Neck Width
  • Front/Back Neck Drop
  • Full Length/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Shirt

  • ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/ Shoulder Seam
  • Across Shoulder/Shoulder to Shoulder
  • Sleeve Length/ Sleeve Over Arm
  • Armhole Straight/Curved
  • Bicep
  • Cuff/Sleeve Opening
  • Cuff Height/Cuff Depth
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Front Length
  • Center Back Length
  • Back Yoke Height
  • Forward

Measuring Points of a Waist

  • ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/ Shoulder Seam
  • Armhole Straight/Curved
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Back Neck Width
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Full Length/Length from HPS/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Jumper

  •  ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • Hem Rib Height/Depth
  • ½ Shoulder Width/Shoulder Seam
  • Across Shoulder/Shoulder to Shoulder
  • Sleeve Length/Sleeve Over arm
  • Armhole Straight /Curved
  • Bicep
  • Sleeve Opening/Cuff Opening
  • Sleeve Rib Height/Depth
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Back Neck Width
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Full length/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Dress

  • ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • High Hip
  • Low Hip
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/Shoulder Seam
  • Sleeve Length/Sleeve Over arm
  • Armhole Straight /Curved
  • Bicep
  • Cuff/Sleeve Opening
  • Cuff Height/Depth
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Back Neck Width
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Full Length/Length from HPS/Front Length/Body Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Skirt

  •  ½ Waist
  • Waistband Depth
  • Top Hip
  • Lower Hip
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • Center Back Length
  • Vent/Split Length
  • Zip Length

Measuring Points of a Trouser

  • W-  ½ Waist
  • WBH- Waist Band Height
  • HP- Hip Position from Waist including Waist Band
  • H- Hip
  • TI- Thigh
  • FR- Front Rise including Waist Band
  • BR- Back Rise including Waist Band
  • I- Inseam
  • SS- Side Seam Including Waist Band
  • CR- Knee to Crotch
  • BHH- Bottom Hem Height
  • K- Knee Width
  • BO- Bottom Hem Opening

Measuring Points of a Denim Pant & Shorts

  •  ½ Waist
  • Waistband Depth
  • Top Hip
  • Lower Hip
  • Leg Opening
  • ½ Thigh
  • Knee Width
  • Front Rise
  • Back Rise
  • Inseam
  • Out seam
  • Yoke Depth at center back
  • Yoke Depth at side seam
  • Fly Length
  • Back Pocket Height
  • Back Pocket Width

Measuring Points of an Overcoat

  •  ½ Chest
  • ½ Waist
  • Lower Hip
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • ½ Shoulder Width/Shoulder Seam
  • Sleeve Length/Sleeve Over arm
  • Armhole Straight /Curved
  • Bicep
  • Cuff/Sleeve Opening
  • Cuff Height/Depth
  • Across Front
  • Across Back
  • Front Neck Drop
  • Back Neck Drop
  • Front Length/Body Length/Full Length
  • Center Back Length

Measuring Points of a Hooded Jacket

  • Front Length/Body Length/Full Length/Length from HPS
  • ½ Chest
  • Sleeve Length/Sleeve Over
  • Arm Armhole Straight /Curved
  • ½ Bottom Hem
  • Bottom Hem Rib Height
  • Cuff Height
  • ½ Shoulder Width/Shoulder Seam
  • Kangaroo Pocket Width
  • Kangaroo Pocket Length
  • Hood Length/Height
  • ½ Hood Width

 

Store Management in RMG

 Store Section

  • For a bulk production industry, it is essential to maintain a well- organized & well equipped store.
  • Store section is called the heart of garment industry.
  • Store is a place where all raw materials are kept systematically so that they can be supplied to required departments when necessary.
  • Sometimes finished goods are stored here till the shipment.
  • Left over materials & left over garments from previous orders are also kept here.

Activities of Store Section

  • Receiving fabrics, trims & accessories from suppliers
  • Inventory and inspection of raw materials
  • Systematic storage of raw materials
  • Providing material inventory & inspection report to merchandisers & taking approval
  • Making fabric blanket for shade segregation
  • Arranging fabric pieces, trims & accessories samples for performing lab test
  • Issuing sample materials to sample section
  • Issuing fabrics, linings, interlinings & padding to cutting section
  • Issuing sewing trims to sewing section
  • Issuing finishing accessories to finishing section
  • Store finished garments till shipment
  • Store left over materials from previous orders for future use
  • Store left over garments after shipment

Sections of Stores within a Store Room

Large factories divide the store into below types for easy working – 

  • Fabric Store
  • Trims & Accessories Store
  • Finished Goods Store
  • Left over materials & left over garments store
  • Sample Store
  • Machinery & Scrape Store Etc.

Store Management; Store management is a process of systematically receiving the incoming materials (Raw materials), keeping them as long as they are not required for use (Custody) and then moving them out of stores for use (Issue).

Importance of Store Management

Store management is required for

  • Proper receiving of incoming consignments (Raw materials)
  • Safe keeping of materials (Custody)
  • Issuing the materials in right quantities at right time.
  • Proper inventory
  • Proper record maintenance
  • Disposal of undesirable goods

Others:

  • Scissor
  • Knife
  • Racks boxes & containers
  • Platform
  • Pin opener
  • Hand gloves
  • Mask
  • Testing equipment
  • Computer
  • Register book etc.

Inventory

Inventory is a complete list of goods in stock. In other words in company’s merchandise, raw materials, and finished and unfinished products which have not yet been sold or shipped is called inventory.

Types of Inventory

1. Raw-materials and components inventory:

This usually consists of the essential items needed to create or make a finished product, such as gears for a bicycle, yarns for fabrics or screens and tubes for a television set.

2. WIP (work in progress) inventory:

This refers to items that are partially completed, but are not the entire finished product. They are on their way to becoming whole items but are not quite there yet. For example; RFD fabric.

3. Finished goods Inventory:

These are the final products that are ready to be purchased by customers and consumers. Finished goods can range from garments, furniture, vehicles etc.

Storage Method

Block Stacking: One of the common methods storing stock is floor stacking or block stacking,. Block stacking is a form of storage that does not require any type of storage equipment and instead loaded cartons are placed directly on the floor under a pallet and built up in stacks to a maximum stable storage height. The maximum storage heights or stacking levels are determined by a number of different factors such as:

  • Load strength & weight (crush ability)
  • Pallet conditions (strength of the pallets)

Advantages

  • Very low setup cost
  • Flexible to arrange

Disadvantages

  • Requires a large storage facility to store only a small amount of stock to make this method a little bit effective.
  • Poor ventilation of products.
  • Storage height depends on a number of variable factors.
  • Have to move the top carton to get to the carton underneath. Cartons are only accessible in a Last in First out (LIFO) method.

Selective Pallet Racking

Selective Pallet Racking is the most common type of warehouse racking.

  • Layout: Selective racking is only one pallet deep; with a maximum of two racks being able to be placed back to back.
  • Pallet Access (FIFO): Selective pallet racking provides direct access to every pallet in storage. This means it’s a First in First out (FIFO) racking type.
  • Aisle Width: When it comes to selective pallet racking aisle width is a major factor for storage capacity. Narrow width can lead to slower handling times.

Advantages

  • Access large range of stock
  • First In First out (FIFO) inventory management.

Disadvantages

  • Requires large amount of warehouse space to store high volume of stock.

Double-Deep Racking

Double Deep is similar to selective racking; but pallets are stored two rows deep instead of one.

  • Layout: Double-Deep Racking is two pallet deep racking. This means a maximum of four rows can be placed back to back.
  • Pallet Access (LIFO): Double-Deep is Last in First out (LIFO) racking type. This type of racking reduces the amount of accessible stocks due to 50% of stocks being behind pallets when storage locations are at full capacity.
  • Aisle Width: When it comes to Double Deep Racking, aisle width requirement is necessary for better storage goods handling.

Advantages

  • Increased storage capacity compared with selective racking
  • Reduced number of aisles
  • Requires specialized forklifts

Disadvantages

  • Reduces stock accessibility
  • Last in First out (LIFO) inventory management

Mobile Pallet Racking

Here pallets are placed on mobile racks or bases. This will increase flow rate and speed. This system is ideal in the conditions where simultaneous loading and unloading rarely occurs and rate of flow is relatively slow. In this system of storage, selection and control activities are very easy.

Advantages

  • Increases storage capacity
  • 100% individual pallet access

Disadvantages

  • It requires more space

Raw Materials Inspection

Like garments, most of the raw materials are not checked for 100%. Quality inspector only needs to confirm that raw materials are sourced as per required standards. Only the items that are made by manual processes are required to check 100% of quantity. All the raw materials made in machine are considered as same quality. Like shades of threads, printed text on labels etc.

In raw materials inspection it is not just visual inspection but many times you need to check its physical properties. To ensure physical properties are as per standards, raw materials are processed for in-house tests. Prior to start inspection, quality checker must have approved standards of the trims or style wise approved trim cards. Standards for the properties are like – color, shade, measurement (width and length) and hand feel etc.

Fabric Inspection:

Apparel manufacturers inspect the fabric stock upon arrival, so that any fabric irregularities are caught early in the production process. Textile producers also generally inspect fabrics before sending them to manufacturers.

General Inspection Procedures

  • Fabric inspection is done in suitable and safe environment with enough ventilation and proper lighting.
  • Fabric passing through the frame must be between 45-60 degree angles to inspector and must be done on appropriate Cool White light 2 F96 fluorescent bulbs above viewing area. Back light can be used as and when needed.
  • Fabric speed on inspection machine must not be more than 15 yards per minute.
  • All fabric inspection must be done when 80% of good or lot is received.
  • Standard approved bulk dye lot standards for all approved lots must be available prior to inspection.
  • Approved standard of bulk dye lot must be available before starting inspection for assessing colour, hand, weight, construction, finish and visual appearance. per minute.
  • Shade continuity within a roll by checking shade variation between centre and selvage and the beginning, middle and end of each roll must be evaluated and documented.
  • Textiles like knits must be evaluated for weight against standard approved weight.
  • Fabric width must be checked from selvage to selvage against standard.
  • All defects must be flagged during inspection
  • The length of each roll inspected must be compared to length as mentioned on supplier ticketed tag and any deviation must be documented and reported to mill for additional replacement to avoid shortage.

Methods of Fabric Inspection 4 point system:

Defect Length                                                                                         Penalty points

Up to 3″                                                                                                               1

Over 3″-6″                                                                                                           2

Over 6″-9″                                                                                                           3

Over 9″                                                                                                                4

For Hole Mark

Up to 1″                                                                                                               2

Over 1″                                                                                                                4

  • Maximum penalty points accepted per 100 sq. yards = 40
  • Defects within ½”-1″ of selvedge is not considered.

Penalty points per 100 sq. yards = (Total Penalty Points in the RollX36X100)/ (Length of fabric inspected X Fabric Width)

10 point system:

Warp Direction

Up to 1″                                                                                                              1

Over 1″-5″                                                                                                          3

Over 5″-10″                                                                                                        5

Over 10″                                                                                                            10

Weft Direction

Up to 1″                                                                                                              1

Over 1″-5″                                                                                                          3

Over 5″-half width                                                                                            5

Over half width                                                                                                10

  • Maximum penalty points accepted per 100 sq. yards = 100
  • Defects within ½” of selvedge are not considered.

Penalty points per 100 sq. yards = (Total Penalty Points in the RollX36X100)/ (Length of fabric inspected X Fabric Width)

Sewing Thread Inspection:

Sewing threads should be checked and tested for the following characteristics:

1) Construction

  • Yarn count
  • Yarn ply
  • Strength
  • Elongation

2) Sew ability: At least three sewing thread packages from a lot should be used for at least 100 yards of sewing under normal conditions and record kept of running performance. A good quality sewing thread should be able to produce consistent stitches in the chosen sewing material at the highest machine speed under normal conditions.

3) Finish: Sewing thread is basically finished by one type of lubricant. As lubricant is applied 3 to 5% of the weight of thread, it provides slip easily and smoothly through the needle eye and other parts through which it passes.

4) Color: Color of sewing thread should match with the original or standard sample and should not vary too much within a lot or batch of sewing thread. Color should not bleed during washing and/or dry cleaning and fade in sunlight.

5) Package density: Package density of sewing thread should be consistent from package to package within a batch or lot. If the package density varies too much sewing machine operators will have to adjust it frequently resulting in lower productivity. Length of sewing thread on each package should be at least the specific amount or within a certain tolerance such as ± 2% and so on.

6) Winding: Winding of sewing thread on packages should be uniform; otherwise, it may result in excessive thread breakages again causing lower productivity.

Zipper Inspection

Zipper should be checked for the followings:

  • Dimension such as tape width, tape extensions, and overall useable length of zipper should be as specified.
  • Top and bottom stoppers should be fastened securely.
  • Zipper tape should be uniform in color. Zipper should not cause puckering after sewn into garments.
  • Puller or pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body.
  • Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain or it must not be too tight.
  • Slider should be locked securely.
  • Zipper should be perfect after washing and will not fade
  • Zipper should not deform under pressing and ironing.
  • Zipper should be well-matched with garments design.
  • Zipper should be azo-free, nickel free and non-magnetic.

Button Inspection

Button should be checked for the followings:

  • Button holes should be large, clean so that it will not cut the thread.
  • Button holes should be located properly.
  • Button thickness should be uniform.
  • Button shade should be within tolerance.
  • Button should be able to withstand laundering, dry cleaning and pressing without any change or deforms.
  • Button size should be as specified.
  • Compression strength is checked
  • Impact resistance is checked
  • Pull test is done

Interlining Inspection

  • The purpose of fusible interlinings is to give shape or form and improve the aesthetics of a garment. There is no better way to test fusible interlining other than to actually fuse the interlining with the fabric and evaluate such samples before starting mass production. Therefore, a piece of fabric is cut and fused to fusible interlining at the recommended time, temperature and pressure. Then this specimen is checked for compatibility, shrinkage and bond strength.
  • Compatibility means that the fusible interlining material should provide good drape ability and support without altering the natural hand of the fabric.
  • Shrinkage can be measured after fusing. Any significant shrinkage of the interlining fabric would result in a noticeable bubbled appearance on to the shell fabric.
  • Specimen may also be used for laundering and dry cleaning according to the intended care instructions of the end item to evaluate fusing performance.

Label Inspection

  • Text content, fonts, language is checked in labels. It is very important that all information is matched with approved one.
  • Fiber content printed in care label must match with test report made for fiber content.
  • Color bleeding issues need to be checked
  • Length and width of labels should be checked

Hangtag/Price tag Inspections

  • Text content, fonts, language is checked
  • Length and width of hangtag, price tag should be checked

Lace/Tape/Elastic Inspection

  • Width and thickness is checked
  • Dyed trims like lace/tape/elastic is checked for color bleeding issues. In this test, trim samples (one by one) are washed with white fabric for a number of cycles. If the white fabric is got tainted with trims color then these trims should not be used in production.
  • Trims those are specified DTM (dye to match) requirement is checked after attaching trims on the fabric swatch. The quality inspector checks shade of the trims whether shade is matched or not. He may use color cabinet (light box) for checking shade. This test is always required for shade matching of sewing threads, embroidery threads, tapes, elastic, button etc.
Sweater Manufacturing Procedure

Sweater Manufacturing and Merchandising Procedure

Production Flow Chart of a Sweater:

  • Yarn Received from Textile
  • Yarn inspection (Random Method)
  • Winding Section
  • Yarn Cone Distribution to the Knitting Operator
  • Knitting Section
  • Knitted Panel Inspection
  • Linking Section
  • Linking Inspection
  • Linking Continue / Trimming Section
  • Inspection by Cylinder Type Light
  • Mending Section
  • Washing section
  • Hydro Extracting
  • Drying
  • Pressing
  • Finishing
  • Labeling (Main, Size, Care etc.)
  • Button Hole, Button Attach, Zipper (If required)
  • Price Tag & Hang tag attach
  • Folding
  • Primary Packaging
  • Quality Audit by Quality Control Team
  • Final Inspection
  • Final Package & Ready to Export

List of Machine required for a Sweater Factory:

  • Winding M/C
  • Knitting M/C
  • Linking M/C
  • Washing M/C
  • Hydro extractor M/C
  • Dryer M/C
  • Boiler M/C
  • Steam Iron
  • Over Lock M/C
  • Label Sewing M/C

Common yarn used in the Sweater Manufacturing Basic Type:

  • 100% Acrylic
  • Acrylic Melange
  • Blended Acrylic
  • 100% Wool
  • Mixed Wool
  • 100% Cotton
  • Blended Cotton

Fancy Type:

  • Chenille
  • Angora tweed
  • Nep yarn/ Slub yarn
  • Mohaire
  • Tape yarn
  • Kashmere like

Types of Stitch/Design Used in Sweater Manufacturing:

Basic Type:

  •  Jersey
  • Rib
  • Double Jersey

Fancy Type:

  • Shaker/Half Cardigan
  • Full Cardigan
  • Milano
  • Drop Knit
  • Pointal
  • Diamond (Normal Diamond, Fancy Diamond)
  • Zigzag
  • Tuck
  • Cable (Normal Cable, Fancy Cable, Butterfly Cable)

Sweater Style

Sweater Style depends on following factors:

Body Shape

  • Fitted Waist
  • Straight Bottom for Unisex
  • A-Line Shape for Ladies only

Shoulder/Armhole Shape

  • Straight Shoulder
  • Raglan Shoulder
  • Saddle Shoulder
  • Set-in Shoulder
  • Drop Shoulder

Neck/Collar Shape

  • Mock Neck
  • Crew Neck/Round Neck
  • V-neck
  • Polo Shirt
  • Sailor Neck
  • High Neck
  • Boat Neck
  • China Neck/Collar (Band Collar)
  • Turtle Neck
  • V-Insert
  • Round Neck with Rolled Edge

Sleeve Shape

  • Sleeve less
  • Cap Sleeve
  • Short Sleeve
  • 3/4 Sleeve
  • Long / Full Sleeve

Pocket

  • Plain Pocket
  • Hexagon Pocket
  • Round Pocket
  • Square Pocket
  • Hidden Pocket
  • Below Pocket
  • Real Flap Pocket
  • Fake Flap Pocket
  • Fake Up Pocket
  • Wetted Pocket
  • Inverted Pocket
  • Box Pocket

Consumption Calculation of Sweater:

Basically sweater is made from yarn not from fabric. Sweater consumption is calculated based on the weight of sweater or the requirement of yarn to make a sweater. Say, yarn required for 12 pcs sweater= 18 Ibs, Wastage=8% Then, sweater consumption= 18 + 8% = 18+1.44 = 19.44 Ibs/dzn

Costing Calculation of Sweater

Costing of a sweater depends on the following factors:

Types of Season:

Peak Season

Off-peak Season

Types of Gauge Used in Sweater Machine

Course Gauge/ Normal Gauge (3G, 5G, 7G)

Fine Gauge (10G, 12G)

Type of Gauge Depends on Season

Type of Gauge: 3G, 5G, 7G 10G, 12G

Off-peak Season: September-February March-August

Peak Season: March-August September-February

Cost of Manufacture (CM) per Dozen

Type of Gauge: 3G, 5G, 7G, 10G & 12G

Off-peak Season: $17/doz, $18/doz, $19/doz, $22/doz

Peak Season: $19/doz, $2o/doz, $21/doz, $24/doz

Wastage of Yarn is as Follows:

  • Wastage Type of Gauge & Yarn             Wastage- %9
  • Course Gauge + Good Yarn                    Wastage- 8%
  • Fine Gauge + Good Yarn                         Wastage- 8%
  • Course Gauge + Chenille Yarn               Wastage- %8
  • Fine Gauge + Chenille Yarn                     Wastage- %10

Styling Charge

  • Raglan and Saddle Shoulder = $ 0.50/dzn
  • Set-in and Drop Shoulder = $ 0.25/dzn

Designing Charge

  • Diamond (Normal)= $ 1.00/dzn
  • Diamond (fancy) = $ 1.50/dzn
  • Cable (Normal) = $ 0.25/dzn
  • Cable (Fancy) = $ 0.50/dzn
  • Cable (Butterfly) = $ 1.00/dzn

All of the above charges may change from time to time.

Suppose, buyer has given an order of Men’s Pullover with crew neck, Raglan shoulder Long Sleeve. Design: 4 lines Normal Diamond, 4 lines Fancy Cables. Machine Gauge=3G, Price of Yarn=$2.00/lbs (100% Acrylic Yarn), Yarn Requirement=18 lbs/dzn, Shipment Date is 30 June,2013. Make a costing for 12 pcs sweater (FOB).

Solution:

Yarn Consumption=DYarn Requirement +Wastage=18+6%=18+1.08=19.08 Ibs/dzn Yarn Cost= Yarn Requirement X Yarn Price= 19.08X2.00=$38.16/dzn CM= $ 19.00/dzn Styling Charge= $0.50 (for raglan shoulder) Designing Charge= (4X1+4X0.50) = $6.00/dzn (4 lines normal diamond,4 lines fancy cables) Trims & Accessories= $ 4.00/dzn Profit= 20% of CM=$3.8/dzn Sub-total= $71.46/dzn Commercial Cost (3%)= 2.14 Sub-total=$73.60/dzn %3D Buying Commission (5%)=$3.68/dzn,Total FOB Cost= $77.28/dzn ($6.44/ piece)

Communication in Merchandising

A merchandiser plays central role in whole process of an export order The success of any export order depends upon the performance of merchandiser. As RMG business is a global business, hence for the production and execution of any order, merchandiser needs to communicate with the different people in the world those have different culture, language, attitude and etiquette’s to follow. So, proper communication is required by a merchandiser. At the very beginning of an order, the information, queries, and details of export are exchanged between the buyer and merchandiser by Communication process only. Buyer gives his standard manuals to the merchandiser. Merchandiser needs to communicate with different levels of people – existing buyers for the follow – up for orders in hand, new buyers for potential future business, the concerned departments like production, quality, purchase, accounts, shipping etc. for execution of order, suppliers for the procurement of fabric and accessories, and subordinates for giving  proper instructions and guidance.

Internal Communication of Merchandising Department

♦Production Department

  • Sample Section
  • Store Section
  • Cutting Section
  • Sewing Section
  • Quality Control Section
  • Finishing Section etc.

♦R & D Department

Production Planning and Coordination (PPC) Department

Commercial and Banking Department

Logistics Department etc.

External Communication of Merchandising Department:

  • Buyer
  • Supplier 
  • Shipping Agent

Modes of communication

There are several modes of communication those are commonly practiced in merchandising to communicate with buyer and suppliers. They are:

E-mail: E-mail is the most common used mode of communication not only in apparel industry but everywhere. Transferring information, files and documents, pictures are done through e-mail. But while dealing with international buyer merchandiser must keep in mind the e-mail etiquette’s.

Some important e-mail etiquette’s are as follows:

  •  Subject line of the e-mail should be meaningful which includes the Style Number; this will help to clarify what the message is about and will also help the buyer to prioritize reading the email.
  • Opening the e-mail with a greeting like Dear Mr. Ali, Hello Sir/Madam, Dear Sir/Madam etc.
  • Standard spelling & punctuation should be used.
  • Clear and short paragraphs should be used.
  • Be direct to the point.
  • Responding within a reasonable time frame is very essential.
  • Old Messages should Unnecessarily large files should be avoided be trimmed back.

Telephonic conversation: This mode of communication is useful in a sense that direct interaction happens between buyer and merchandiser. aware of telephonic etiquette’s which need to follow while talking with international personalities, in order to maintain the good relationship with buyer. The main advantage of telephonic conversation it is used to get quick response from buyer for an emergency case. But the disadvantage is that, merchandiser doesn’t have any proof of conversation, hence it may be risky for merchandiser.

Formal meetings: Often formal meetings with different people, at different stages of order processing become necessary. This is the oldest and very reliable source of communication, which ensures the quick response. This is very effective method of communication, the facial expressions, body language, attitude towards particular situation can be judge on the spot and decisions can be made at that time.

Video conference: Now-a-days it is very easy to communicate with buyer without leaving the office taking the help from technology. Normally buyer office may be at a long distance; hence for buyer as it is very difficult to come at manufacturing country every time to meet with people. Videoconferencing uses audio and video telecommunications to bring people at different sites together. Video conferencing helps in eliminating the disadvantages of both telecommunication and actual meeting. Videoconferencing can enable individuals in distant locations to participate in meetings on short notice, with time and money savings.

Courier: One of the most important aspects of communication is courier. Physical samples and documents are sent via courier. Hence there must be effective courier service nationally and internationally available.

Necessary Documents for Merchandising Work

Tech pack:  A Tech pack is informative sheet which provides all the specifications of the requirements of any product. It contains all the details of any specific style of the garment. It helps in producing accurate samples, which improves turnaround time and simplifies communication during all stages of manufacturing and quality control. The merchandisers are thus able to go ahead and ensure that the required material as per the tech-pack is available with to the factory, in the right quantities at the right time.

Components of tech pack:

  • Design of the product or Flat Sketch
  • Style number
  • Colour specification
  • Fabric details
  • Stitching and Construction details
  • Print details
  • Embroidery details
  • Washing details
  • Trim details
  • Point of measurement (POM)
  •  Size chart and grade rule
  • Label details
  • Testing method details
  • Folding and packaging details
  • Fit history
  • Sample evaluation comments
  •  Necessary comments related to the products

Purchase Order (PO): A buyer generated document that authorizes a purchase transaction. When accepted by the seller, it becomes a contract binding on both parties. A purchase order is a commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller, indicating types, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller will provide to the buyer. Sending a purchase order to a supplier constitutes a legal offer to buy products or services. Acceptance of a purchase order by a seller usually forms a contract between the buyer and seller, so no contract exists until the purchase order is accepted. It is used to control the purchasing of products and services from external supplier.

Information contained in a PO is given below:

  • Order No.
  • Date of Order
  • Product Name
  • Product No.
  • Item description
  • Season
  • End User Group (i.e. Men’s, Ladies, Kids, Infant, Toddler etc)
  • Type of fabric (Jersey, Interlock, Pique etc)
  • Total Order qty # Total color & color wise qty
  • Unit Price
  • Time of delivery
  • Supplier Name
  • Payment terms

Bill of Materials (BOM): A bill of materials (BOM) is a list of the raw materials, sub-components, parts and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product.

Information contained in a bill of materials (BOM) is given below:

  • Order Number (No.)
  • Date of Order
  • Product Name
  • Product Number (No.)
  • Item description
  • Season
  • End User Group (i.e. Men’s, Ladies, Kids, Infant, Toddler etc)
  • Fabric Composition (i.e. 80% Cotton 20% Polyester Jersey) # Construction of Yarn (i.e. 40/1) # Weight of Fabric (i.e. 180gsm)
  • Types of trims & accessories
  • Code of trims & accessories (if any) etc.

Sales Contract: It is an agreement between the buyer and the seller stipulating every details of the transaction. It is a legally binding document. It is therefore advisable to seek legal advice before signing the contract.

Information contained in a sales contract is given below:

  • Name & address of the consignee
  • Name & address of the consignee’s bank
  • Item description
  • order Number
  • Order Qty
  • Unit price
  • Total Value
  • Last Shipment date
  • Tolerance (+/- qty)
  • Mode of Shipment (FOB/ CIF etc)
  • Insurance
  • Expiry of Contract (i.e. after 30 days of shipment)
  • Payment terms [TT payment 20 days after shipment with 2% (buying commission) discount value]
  • Name of supplier’s bank
  • Bank account no.
  • Signature of both buyer and seller

Pro forma Invoice (PI): An estimated invoice sent by a seller to a buyer in advance of a shipment or delivery of goods. It notes the kind and quantity of goods, their value, and other important information such as weight and transportation charges. Pro forma invoices are commonly used as preliminary invoices with a quotation, or for customs purposes in importation.

In order to create a pro forma invoice, you need to know:

  1. The product(s) shipped and its value, weight and cubic dimensions of the shipment.
  2. By what means the equipment is going to be shipped.
  3. Packing method
  4. Where the equipment will be landed.

Information contained in a PI is given below:

  • Type of goods
  • Quality of goods
  • Unit Value
  • Total Value
  • Payment Terms (after how many days supplier will get payment)
  • Shipment Date
  • Expiry of Contract/ Offer Validity etc.

Commercial Invoice: A commercial invoice is a document used in foreign trade. It is used as a customs declaration provided by the person or corporation that is exporting an item across international borders.

Information contained in a Commercial Invoice is given below:

  • Parties involved in shipping transaction
  • Goods being transported
  • Code of goods if any
  • Buyer name
  • Date
  • Sales terms
  • Total amount
  • Total Quality
  • Unit Value
  • Currency of Payment
  • Means Of Transport
  • Insurance fees etc.

Bill of Lading (BL) only for sea Shipment-

A document issued by a carrier, or its agent, to the shipper as a contract of carriage of goods. It is also a receipt for cargo accepted for transportation, and must be presented for taking delivery at the destination.

Information contained in a Bill of Lading (BL) is given below:

  • Name of shipper/exporter
  • Consignee/ Receiver name, address and telephone number in the destination country
  • The name of the vessel on which the goods have been placed
  • Their intended destination
  • Description of the goods that are being shipped
  • Weight and the other shipping details
  • The date of departure & arrival
  • Freight rate and amount \ Signature of shipping agent/company

Airway Bill (AWB): A document that accompanies goods shipped by an international courier to provide detailed information about the shipment and allow it to be tracked is known as AWB. The air waybill has multiple copies so that each party involved in the shipment can document it.

  • The bill contains the shipper’s name and address,
  • consignee’s name and address
  • origin airport code destination airport code, declared shipment value for customs
  • number of pieces
  • gross weight
  • A description of the goods and any special instructions (e.g, “Perishable”).

letter of Guarantee ( LG ): Letter of guarantee ( LG ) is a type of contract issued by a bank on behalf of , customer who has entered a contract to purchase goods from a supplier and promises to meet any financial obligations to the supplier in the event of default . It often helps firms conduct business with parties they would never normally get the chance to deal with . Many suppliers will often choose to do business with customers that have a letter of guarantee because it eliminates the risk that they will not receive the appropriate payment for the goods that they are selling .

Packing list: The packing list ( P/L ) is an inventory of the incoming cargo required for customs clearance and accompanying the commercial invoice and the transport documents.

It generally includes the following :

  • In the exporter , the importer and the transport company
  • Date of issue
  • Number of the freight invoice 4 type of packaging (carton , box , bag , etc.)
  • Number of packages
  • Content of each package (description of the goods and number of items per package)
  • Marks and Numbers
  • Net weight , gross weight and measurement of the packages

Inspection Certificate (IC): Many foreign firms require this document for protection in quality and conformity disputes with the shipper . The document , typically in the form affidavit from either the shipper or an independent inspection firm , es the quality , quantity and conformity of the goods to the purchase certifies the quality , quantity an order.

Basic Concept of Fiber & Yarn

♠Fiber♠

Fiber: Fiber is defined as any product capable of being made into fabric. It is smallest visible unit of textile product. A fiber can be defined as a “pliable” hair like strand that is very small in diameter in relation to its length”. Fibers are the fundamental units or the building blocks used in the making of textile yarns and fabrics.

Properties of Textile Fibers:

  • Tenacity
  • Flexibility
  • Spinning quality (Cohesiveness)
  • Uniformity
  • Resiliency
  • Density
  • Elasticity
  • Luster
  • Color
  • Crimp
  • Moisture Regain

Classification of Fibers

According to the length of fiber-

Staple fiber: Natural or man-made or short length fibers which measures in inches or fraction of inch; for example 3/4 inch to 18 inches except silk all other natural fibers are staple fibers. Staple fibers are of limited length.

Filament Fiber: Long continuous fibers strands of indefinite length measured in yards or meters fibers of continuous length long enough to be used in fabric as such natural silk filament is 360-1200 meters. Synthetic (man-made) filaments can be made many kilometers long. The only natural filament fiber available is silk. All man-made fibers are filament. Man-made fibers are produced as filament, although they used as staple fibers if necessary. So filaments are used as staple fiber but staple fibers are never used as filament.

According to sources-

Natural Fibers:

Produced naturally from plants or animals and are spun or twisted into yarns. Cotton is the most common natural fiber. Other natural fibers include silk, wool, jute, hemp, and linen. Natural fibers are generally not as uniform as synthetic fibers and are affected by climatic changes w select cotton fibers from the best available crops, classifying them depending on the geographic location, climate, plant seed type, and the cotton grower reputation.

Types of Cotton based on quality:

  • Sea Island cotton- The quality of this type of cotton is good. The staple length is around 2 inch. The average diameter is around 0.016mm.
  • Pima Cotton- Staple length is around 1 inch.
  •  US Cotton- Its staple length 1.5 inch.
  • Asian Cotton- Staple length 1 1/8 inch and it is found is China, India Pakistan etc.

Synthetic / Man-made Fibers: These are made from various chemicals that are then melt-spun or wet-spun into continuous filament fibers. We select our synthetic fibers based on their ease of dying, color fastness, pricing and sustainability. The most common synthetic fibers used are polyester and nylon. Other synthetic fibers are acrylic, spandex, glass fiber, rubber fiber, metallic fiber, ceramic fiber etc.

Yarn

Yarn: Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, and rope making.

Classification of Yarn

According to structure-

Staple fiber yarn or Spun Yarn (Single Yarn):  Spun yarns are made from the staple fibers that are twisted together. This type of yarn is usually found in most standard fabrics for clothing and household use and purposes.

Ply Yarn: Two or more than two single yarns are twisted together to form a ply yarn. two single yarns are twisted together, the resulting yarn is known as two-ply yarn. If three are twisted together three-ply yarn and so-on. A cabled yarn is formed by twisting together two or more ply yarns or a combination of ply and single yarns. Cords are seldom used in apparel fabric.

Filament yarns: A filament yarn is made from one or more continuous strands called filaments where each component filament runs the whole length of the yarn. Those yarns composed of one filament are called mono-filament yarns, and those containing more filaments are known as multi-filament yarns. Silk is the only major natural filament yarn.

Novelty Yarns- The construction of these yarns is of complex nature and is varied in many ways. These yarns are usually ply yarns of different kinds of fibers or of different colors and are irregular rather than smooth single strand or yarn of various colors, sizes of fibres may be twisted together to form complex yarn.

Types of Novelty Yarns

Slub yarn: This is a yarn made with thick and thin placing by varying the amount of twist in the yarn at regular intervals. They are found in drapery and upholstery fabrics.

Flock yarn: These are frequently called as flake yarns. These are usually single yarns in which small amount of fibers either different colors or luster or both are inserted into the yarn and held in place by twist of base yarn eg: tweed fabric. This gives a spotted and short streaky appearance.

Thick and thin yarns: These are similar to slub yarns but these are made from filament whereas slub is prepared from staples.

Metallic Yarn: These are primarily decorative. The plastic coasting on it resists tarnishing but care must be taken while pressing as pure metals are soft, their thin films are used over a core yarn that has replaced gold and silvers now.

Types of Cotton Yarn (based on manufacturing process):

  • Carded Yarn: The yarn which is made from short staple and low quality fiber are called carded yarn. Carding is an operation in the spinning section. The yarn that is formed after carding operation is called carded yarn.
  • Combed Yarn: A yarn whose sliver is combed and uses finer fiber than carded yarns and is more regular and expensive than carded yarn.

Yarn Count

Yarn count is a numerical value, which express the coarseness or fineness (diameter) of the yarn and also indicate the relationship between length and weight (the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass) of that yarn.

Types of Yarn Count:

  • Direct Count System
  • Indirect Count System

Direct Count System: The weight of a fixed length of yarn is determined. The weight per unit length is the yarn count. The common feature of direct count systems is the length of yarn is fixed and the weight of yarn varies according to its fineness.

The following formula is used to calculate the yarn count:

N=(W*L)/L

Where, N =Yarn count or numbering system

W =Weight of the sample at the official regain in the unit of the system

L=Length of the sample

I=Unit of length of the sample

Tex of a yarn indicates the weight in grams of 1000 meters yarn. So, 40TEX means 1000 meters of yarn weigh 40gm, text means 1000 meters of yarn weigh 50gm. From above discussion it is concluded that, higher the yarn number (count) coarser the yarn and lower the number finer the yarn.

Indirect Count System: The length of a fixed weight of yarn is measured. The length per unit weight is the yarn count. The common feature of indirect count system is the weight of yarn is fixed and the Length of yarn varies according to its fineness.

The following formula is used to calculate they are count:

N=(L*W)/W*L

Where, N =Yarn count or numbering system

W =Weight of the sample at the official regain in the unit of the system

L=Length of the sample

I=Unit of length of the sample

W=Unit o weight of the sample

  • Ne: No of 840 yards yarn weighing in one pound (1 lb)
  • Nm: No of one kilometer yarn weighing in one kilogram (1 kg)

The ‘Ne’ indicates how many hanks of 840 yards length weight one pound. So, 30 Ne means 30 hanks of 840 yards i.e.30×840 yards length weigh one pound, 40 Ne means 40 hanks of 840yards i.e.40×840 yards length weigh one pound.

From above discussion it is concluded that, higher the yarn number (count) finer the yarn and lower the number coarser the yarn.

Introduction To Merchandising

Merchandise means the products for sale.

Merchandising is the promotion of goods and/or services that are available for retail sale. Merchandising includes the determination of quantities, setting prices for goods, creating designs, developing marketing strategies. Merchandiser is the person who does the merchandising job.

Hidden Meaning of ‘Merchandiser’

M= Managerial Capability

E= Efficient

R= Right sense of Responsibility

C= Commitment

H= Honest

A= Attitude (positive to solve any problem)

N= No negligence

D= Devoted

I= Informative

S= Sincere

E= Enthusiastic

R= Regular

Roles & Responsibilities a of Merchandiser:
Merchandising activities vary from company to company. The major duties and responsibilities of a merchandiser is to –
  • Procure order from buyer.
  • Communicate with buyers for sample development as per original sample or buyer’s product package, approval and finally order confirmation.
  • Arrange to send correct sample to buyer and follow up sampling procedure.
  •  Arrange trim card & developments of lab dip, dye lot, print strike off and embroidery strike off for buyer approval.
  • Make T&A to estimate time schedule for the export of garments as per L/C.
  • Arrange all the materials needed for the garments to manufacture and export.
  • Monitor collection of raw materials as per time schedule.
  • Monitor the quantity and quality of the collected raw materials.
  • Select garment factory if required.
  • Monitor garment production progress as per time schedule.
  • Monitor desired/imposed quality level of the produced garment given by buyer.
  • Monitor garment packing instructions as per requirement of buyer.
  • Monitor shipment arrangements as per time schedule.
  • Maintain continuous liaison with the buyer.
  • Arrange final inspection at the end of production.
  • Proper sourcing of buyer, raw materials supplier etc.
  • Negotiation with the buyers and suppliers.
  • Conduct PP meeting with the factory with concerning departments and hand over production file and approved sample.
  • Calculate consumption of raw materials.
  • Calculate costing of raw materials. Order follow up with the production people of factory, suppliers buyers etc.
  • Follow up with the print factory, embroidery factory, washing factory etc.
  • Arrange fabric/garment testing from testing lab.
  • Follow up commercial activities with the commercial department.
  • And finally, to earn profit through garment export execution.

A good merchandising team is a backbone to the factory.

Merchandising Procedure:

  1. Inquiry of order from the buyer with detailed requirement.
  2. Development of sample as per requirement.
  3. Price negotiation with the buyer.
  4. Order confirmation and receive the order sheet.
  5. Make buyer requirement sample (Fit, Proto etc.) for approval.
  6. Requisition for bulk fabric.
  7. Requisition for trims & accessories.
  8. Swatch board making and approval.
  9. Collection of raw materials (fabric, trims & accessories) and also receive it in the factory.
  10. PP (pre-production) sample making with all actual materials.
  11. PP (Pre-production) meeting.
  12. Start bulk production.
  13. Collect daily production and quality report.
  14. Make online inspection by strong quality team.
  15. Sample sent to third party testing center.
  16. Make final inspection of bulk production.
  17. Shipment (if inspection is OK).
  18. Send all documents to the Buyer.
  19. Receive payment from Bank

Skills/Qualities of a Good Merchandiser:

Without understanding the merchandising job and acquiring knowledge on various field and subjects related to garments a person cannot handle any order efficiently. As such he has to equip himself with the knowledge on following:

  • He must be very smart, intelligent and courageous.
  • Should have proficiency in both written and spoken English.
  • Should have the basic of computer application.
  • Must have very good communication skill.
  • He should have the monitoring capability to expedite orders.
  • Knowledge on different types of fabrics, fabric weight (GSM), yarn count etc.
  • Knowledge on different types of trims and accessories used in garment.
  • Knowledge on lab test parameters and procedure.
  • Sampling procedure of buyer.
  • He should have the knowledge of garment construction.
  • L/C and all payment terms.
  • Must have the knowledge of different export and import documents.
  • Different types of accessories and their consumption calculating system.
  • Fabric consumption calculating system.
  • Fabric and other trims & accessories sources and prices.
  • Idea on different types of print, embroidery and wash.
  • Knowledge of garment costing.
  • Should have the negotiation skill.
  • Must be able to work in a team and work under pressure.
  • Proficient in e-mail corresponding etc.

Types of Merchandising:

Apparel Merchandising –

Apparel/ Garment merchandising means the work to buy raw materials and accessories to produce garments against a particular work order of garment and have to export these under the same work order within time schedule maintaining required quality level of buyer. In garment merchandising, there is no hard and fast rule, so it is important to be able to think on ones feet.

Fashion Merchandising-

Fashion merchandising is a rather broad term that can be used to describe the business side of the fashion industry. This field involves buying, pricing, marketing, displaying, and selling certain types of garments and accessories. Most fashion merchandisers must be able to predict future fashion and market trends. In order to do this, these professionals will often need to rely on their own research as well as current trend reports. After predicting future fashion trends, fashion merchandisers will also determine which fashions and garments that a particular store should stock.

Retail Merchandising-

The word ‘Retailer’ is originated from the French word ‘retailer’ which means ‘to cut again’. Retail merchandising involves all the activities related to direct selling of products or services to the ultimate consumers or users of the product. Retail merchandiser sells products in less quantities and they act as an inter mediator between the ultimate consumers and wholesalers. A retailer is both a marketer and a customer and he creates place, time and facilities to sell the goods.

Visual Merchandising-

Every customer wants to see the product before they do purchase. A store has to display the products what it has for sales. And the display should be done in a way so that it should attract the customer. Visual merchandising is an art of displaying the things in an attractive way so that it could attract the attention of the customer and persuade them to buy the product. Visual statements made in the store windows are the customer’s first view with the store.

Difference between Marketing and Merchandising:

Marketing Marketing is a set of activities that begin with identification of need of the product or service and ends with taking the product to the customer and keeping him happy with it. Marketing is not merely promoting a product or service to create the need for anticipating and satisfying the needs of the customers while at the same time keeping an eye upon the goals of the organization. Merchandising Merchandising is a subset of marketing. It is the process of presenting the products to the buyer in such a manner so as to affect his buying pattern. It is more specific concerning itself with the product development, execution and delivery maintaining deadline of the buyer. According to American Marketing Association, merchandising encompasses “planning involved in marketing the right merchandise or service at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, and at the right price”