Raw Materials Inspection

Like garments, most of the raw materials are not checked for 100%. Quality inspector only needs to confirm that raw materials are sourced as per required standards. Only the items that are made by manual processes are required to check 100% of quantity. All the raw materials made in machine are considered as same quality. Like shades of threads, printed text on labels etc.

In raw materials inspection it is not just visual inspection but many times you need to check its physical properties. To ensure physical properties are as per standards, raw materials are processed for in-house tests. Prior to start inspection, quality checker must have approved standards of the trims or style wise approved trim cards. Standards for the properties are like – color, shade, measurement (width and length) and hand feel etc.

Fabric Inspection:

Apparel manufacturers inspect the fabric stock upon arrival, so that any fabric irregularities are caught early in the production process. Textile producers also generally inspect fabrics before sending them to manufacturers.

General Inspection Procedures

  • Fabric inspection is done in suitable and safe environment with enough ventilation and proper lighting.
  • Fabric passing through the frame must be between 45-60 degree angles to inspector and must be done on appropriate Cool White light 2 F96 fluorescent bulbs above viewing area. Back light can be used as and when needed.
  • Fabric speed on inspection machine must not be more than 15 yards per minute.
  • All fabric inspection must be done when 80% of good or lot is received.
  • Standard approved bulk dye lot standards for all approved lots must be available prior to inspection.
  • Approved standard of bulk dye lot must be available before starting inspection for assessing colour, hand, weight, construction, finish and visual appearance. per minute.
  • Shade continuity within a roll by checking shade variation between centre and selvage and the beginning, middle and end of each roll must be evaluated and documented.
  • Textiles like knits must be evaluated for weight against standard approved weight.
  • Fabric width must be checked from selvage to selvage against standard.
  • All defects must be flagged during inspection
  • The length of each roll inspected must be compared to length as mentioned on supplier ticketed tag and any deviation must be documented and reported to mill for additional replacement to avoid shortage.

Methods of Fabric Inspection 4 point system:

Defect Length                                                                                         Penalty points

Up to 3″                                                                                                               1

Over 3″-6″                                                                                                           2

Over 6″-9″                                                                                                           3

Over 9″                                                                                                                4

For Hole Mark

Up to 1″                                                                                                               2

Over 1″                                                                                                                4

  • Maximum penalty points accepted per 100 sq. yards = 40
  • Defects within ½”-1″ of selvedge is not considered.

Penalty points per 100 sq. yards = (Total Penalty Points in the RollX36X100)/ (Length of fabric inspected X Fabric Width)

10 point system:

Warp Direction

Up to 1″                                                                                                              1

Over 1″-5″                                                                                                          3

Over 5″-10″                                                                                                        5

Over 10″                                                                                                            10

Weft Direction

Up to 1″                                                                                                              1

Over 1″-5″                                                                                                          3

Over 5″-half width                                                                                            5

Over half width                                                                                                10

  • Maximum penalty points accepted per 100 sq. yards = 100
  • Defects within ½” of selvedge are not considered.

Penalty points per 100 sq. yards = (Total Penalty Points in the RollX36X100)/ (Length of fabric inspected X Fabric Width)

Sewing Thread Inspection:

Sewing threads should be checked and tested for the following characteristics:

1) Construction

  • Yarn count
  • Yarn ply
  • Strength
  • Elongation

2) Sew ability: At least three sewing thread packages from a lot should be used for at least 100 yards of sewing under normal conditions and record kept of running performance. A good quality sewing thread should be able to produce consistent stitches in the chosen sewing material at the highest machine speed under normal conditions.

3) Finish: Sewing thread is basically finished by one type of lubricant. As lubricant is applied 3 to 5% of the weight of thread, it provides slip easily and smoothly through the needle eye and other parts through which it passes.

4) Color: Color of sewing thread should match with the original or standard sample and should not vary too much within a lot or batch of sewing thread. Color should not bleed during washing and/or dry cleaning and fade in sunlight.

5) Package density: Package density of sewing thread should be consistent from package to package within a batch or lot. If the package density varies too much sewing machine operators will have to adjust it frequently resulting in lower productivity. Length of sewing thread on each package should be at least the specific amount or within a certain tolerance such as ± 2% and so on.

6) Winding: Winding of sewing thread on packages should be uniform; otherwise, it may result in excessive thread breakages again causing lower productivity.

Zipper Inspection

Zipper should be checked for the followings:

  • Dimension such as tape width, tape extensions, and overall useable length of zipper should be as specified.
  • Top and bottom stoppers should be fastened securely.
  • Zipper tape should be uniform in color. Zipper should not cause puckering after sewn into garments.
  • Puller or pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body.
  • Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain or it must not be too tight.
  • Slider should be locked securely.
  • Zipper should be perfect after washing and will not fade
  • Zipper should not deform under pressing and ironing.
  • Zipper should be well-matched with garments design.
  • Zipper should be azo-free, nickel free and non-magnetic.

Button Inspection

Button should be checked for the followings:

  • Button holes should be large, clean so that it will not cut the thread.
  • Button holes should be located properly.
  • Button thickness should be uniform.
  • Button shade should be within tolerance.
  • Button should be able to withstand laundering, dry cleaning and pressing without any change or deforms.
  • Button size should be as specified.
  • Compression strength is checked
  • Impact resistance is checked
  • Pull test is done

Interlining Inspection

  • The purpose of fusible interlinings is to give shape or form and improve the aesthetics of a garment. There is no better way to test fusible interlining other than to actually fuse the interlining with the fabric and evaluate such samples before starting mass production. Therefore, a piece of fabric is cut and fused to fusible interlining at the recommended time, temperature and pressure. Then this specimen is checked for compatibility, shrinkage and bond strength.
  • Compatibility means that the fusible interlining material should provide good drape ability and support without altering the natural hand of the fabric.
  • Shrinkage can be measured after fusing. Any significant shrinkage of the interlining fabric would result in a noticeable bubbled appearance on to the shell fabric.
  • Specimen may also be used for laundering and dry cleaning according to the intended care instructions of the end item to evaluate fusing performance.

Label Inspection

  • Text content, fonts, language is checked in labels. It is very important that all information is matched with approved one.
  • Fiber content printed in care label must match with test report made for fiber content.
  • Color bleeding issues need to be checked
  • Length and width of labels should be checked

Hangtag/Price tag Inspections

  • Text content, fonts, language is checked
  • Length and width of hangtag, price tag should be checked

Lace/Tape/Elastic Inspection

  • Width and thickness is checked
  • Dyed trims like lace/tape/elastic is checked for color bleeding issues. In this test, trim samples (one by one) are washed with white fabric for a number of cycles. If the white fabric is got tainted with trims color then these trims should not be used in production.
  • Trims those are specified DTM (dye to match) requirement is checked after attaching trims on the fabric swatch. The quality inspector checks shade of the trims whether shade is matched or not. He may use color cabinet (light box) for checking shade. This test is always required for shade matching of sewing threads, embroidery threads, tapes, elastic, button etc.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *