- For a bulk production industry, it is essential to maintain a well- organized & well equipped store.
- Store section is called the heart of garment industry.
- Store is a place where all raw materials are kept systematically so that they can be supplied to required departments when necessary.
- Sometimes finished goods are stored here till the shipment.
- Left over materials & left over garments from previous orders are also kept here.
Activities of Store Section
- Receiving fabrics, trims & accessories from suppliers
- Inventory and inspection of raw materials
- Systematic storage of raw materials
- Providing material inventory & inspection report to merchandisers & taking approval
- Making fabric blanket for shade segregation
- Arranging fabric pieces, trims & accessories samples for performing lab test
- Issuing sample materials to sample section
- Issuing fabrics, linings, interlinings & padding to cutting section
- Issuing sewing trims to sewing section
- Issuing finishing accessories to finishing section
- Store finished garments till shipment
- Store left over materials from previous orders for future use
- Store left over garments after shipment
Sections of Stores within a Store Room
Large factories divide the store into below types for easy working –
- Fabric Store
- Trims & Accessories Store
- Finished Goods Store
- Left over materials & left over garments store
- Sample Store
- Machinery & Scrape Store Etc.
Store Management; Store management is a process of systematically receiving the incoming materials (Raw materials), keeping them as long as they are not required for use (Custody) and then moving them out of stores for use (Issue).
Importance of Store Management
Store management is required for –
- Proper receiving of incoming consignments (Raw materials)
- Safe keeping of materials (Custody)
- Issuing the materials in right quantities at right time.
- Proper inventory
- Proper record maintenance
- Disposal of undesirable goods
- Racks boxes & containers
- Pin opener
- Hand gloves
- Testing equipment
- Register book etc.
Inventory is a complete list of goods in stock. In other words in company’s merchandise, raw materials, and finished and unfinished products which have not yet been sold or shipped is called inventory.
Types of Inventory
1. Raw-materials and components inventory:
This usually consists of the essential items needed to create or make a finished product, such as gears for a bicycle, yarns for fabrics or screens and tubes for a television set.
2. WIP (work in progress) inventory:
This refers to items that are partially completed, but are not the entire finished product. They are on their way to becoming whole items but are not quite there yet. For example; RFD fabric.
3. Finished goods Inventory:
These are the final products that are ready to be purchased by customers and consumers. Finished goods can range from garments, furniture, vehicles etc.
Block Stacking: One of the common methods storing stock is floor stacking or block stacking,. Block stacking is a form of storage that does not require any type of storage equipment and instead loaded cartons are placed directly on the floor under a pallet and built up in stacks to a maximum stable storage height. The maximum storage heights or stacking levels are determined by a number of different factors such as:
- Load strength & weight (crush ability)
- Pallet conditions (strength of the pallets)
- Very low setup cost
- Flexible to arrange
- Requires a large storage facility to store only a small amount of stock to make this method a little bit effective.
- Poor ventilation of products.
- Storage height depends on a number of variable factors.
- Have to move the top carton to get to the carton underneath. Cartons are only accessible in a Last in First out (LIFO) method.
Selective Pallet Racking
Selective Pallet Racking is the most common type of warehouse racking.
- Layout: Selective racking is only one pallet deep; with a maximum of two racks being able to be placed back to back.
- Pallet Access (FIFO): Selective pallet racking provides direct access to every pallet in storage. This means it’s a First in First out (FIFO) racking type.
- Aisle Width: When it comes to selective pallet racking aisle width is a major factor for storage capacity. Narrow width can lead to slower handling times.
- Access large range of stock
- First In First out (FIFO) inventory management.
- Requires large amount of warehouse space to store high volume of stock.
Double Deep is similar to selective racking; but pallets are stored two rows deep instead of one.
- Layout: Double-Deep Racking is two pallet deep racking. This means a maximum of four rows can be placed back to back.
- Pallet Access (LIFO): Double-Deep is Last in First out (LIFO) racking type. This type of racking reduces the amount of accessible stocks due to 50% of stocks being behind pallets when storage locations are at full capacity.
- Aisle Width: When it comes to Double Deep Racking, aisle width requirement is necessary for better storage goods handling.
- Increased storage capacity compared with selective racking
- Reduced number of aisles
- Requires specialized forklifts
- Reduces stock accessibility
- Last in First out (LIFO) inventory management
Mobile Pallet Racking
Here pallets are placed on mobile racks or bases. This will increase flow rate and speed. This system is ideal in the conditions where simultaneous loading and unloading rarely occurs and rate of flow is relatively slow. In this system of storage, selection and control activities are very easy.
- Increases storage capacity
- 100% individual pallet access
- It requires more space